Pyrolysis Technology

  • Pyrolysis is the thermal degradation of a substance in the absence of oxygen.
  • This process requires an external heat source to maintain the temperature required.
  • Typically, lower temperatures of between 300C to 850C are used for the pyrolysis of materials.
  • In general pyrolysis processes tend to prefer consistent feedstocks.
  • Feedstock preparation may be required to provide consistency and avoid certain inorganic materials in the process, such as metals, glass and inert materials such as rubble.
  • The products produced from pyrolyzing materials are a solid residue and a synthesis gas.
  • The solid residue can be converted into carbon.
  • The syngas is a mixture of gases (combustible constituents include carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane, and a broad range of other VOCs).
  • A proportion of these can be condensed to produce oils, waxes, and tars.

Applications for the pyrolysis oil

  • Raw material for oil refinery & plastic production
  • Low speed diesel engines (marine application)
  • Industrial furnaces, kilns, driers, boilers
  • Fuel for power plants

Gasification Technology

  • Gasification can be considered a process between pyrolysis and incineration in that it involves the partial oxidation of a substance.
  • The temperatures employed are typically above 650°C.
  • The process is largely exothermic, but some heat may be required to initialise and sustain the gasification process.
  • The main product is a syngas, which contains carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane.
  • typically the feedstock would require some mechanical preparation and separation of glass, metals, and inert materials prior to processing the remaining waste. Plastic waste although with some contamination is considered a practical waste for such technology.
  • It can also be produced by plasma at high temperatures, using steam and little oxygen to break down the complex carbon molecules and generate the syngas.
  • Other gasification processes uses plasma to clean the syngas.

Applications for the syngas

  • Syngas can be used to generate electricity over IC engines, turbines, boiler, or for other thermal uses.
  • Syngas can be converted to oils to use in the petrochemical or into diesel.
  • The syngas can also be converted into hydrogen which currently is in huge demand in particular if CO2 is neutral or highly reduced.

Advanced Thermal Treatment for type of Waste